In response to the closure of Napster, a number of alternative P2P file-sharing systems were developed, including Gnutella and eDonkey. These systems used a decentralized network of users to share files, making it much more difficult for authorities to shut them down.
The first torrent protocol was introduced in 2001, and it quickly became popular among P2P file-sharing communities. The torrent protocol is a more efficient way of sharing files than previous P2P systems, as it allows users to download pieces of a file from multiple sources (known as "seeders") at the same time, rather than relying on a single source.
Over the years, torrents have become one of the most popular ways to share and download files on the internet, with millions of users around the world using torrents to download movies, TV shows, music, games, and software. However, torrents have also been the subject of controversy, as they are often used to download copyrighted material illegally. Despite this, torrents continue to be a popular method of file sharing, and the development of new technologies, such as blockchain, is helping to keep torrents relevant in the digital age